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Jean Domat On Social Order And Absolute Monarchy Analysis Essay

Jean Domat (1625-1696) was a renowned French jurist in the reign of Louis XIV, the king who perfected the practice of royal absolutism. Domat made it his life's task to explain the theory behind this absolutism by setting French law and social structure into the wider context of the law of nature and the law of God. Louis XIV regarded Domat's work so highly that he assigned him a pension, and in effect the royal government sponsored his publications. Public Law, the treatise that dealt most directly with the origin of social order and government, and with the rights and duties of kings, appeared in 1697, the year after Domat's death.

There is no one who is not convinced of the importance of good order in the state and who does not sincerely wish to see that state well ordered in which he has to live. For everyone understands, and feels in himself by experience and by reason, that this order concerns and touches him in a number of ways ....

Everyone knows that human society forms a body of which each person is a member; and this truth, which Scripture teaches us and which the light of reason makes plain, is the foundation of all the duties that relate to the conduct of each person toward others and toward the body as a whole. For these sorts of duties are nothing else but the functions appropriate to the place each person holds according to his rank in society.

It is in this principle that we must seek the origin of the rules that determine the duties, both of those who govern and of those who are subject to government. For it is through the place God has assigned each person in the body of society, that He, by calling him to it, prescribes all his functions and duties. And just as He commands everyone to obey faithfully the precepts of His law that make up the duties of all people in general, so He prescribes for each one in particular the duties proper to his condition and status, according to his rank in the body of which he is a member. This includes the functions and duties of each member with respect to other individuals and with respect to the body as a whole.

[Necessity and the Origin of Government]

Because all men are equal by nature, that is to say, by their basic humanity, nature does not make anyone subject to others .... But within this natural equality, people are differentiated by factors that make their status unequal, and forge between them relationships and dependencies that determine the various duties of each toward the others, and make government necessary ....

The first distinction that subjects people to others is the one created by birth between parents and children. And this distinction leads to a first kind of government in families, where children owe obedience to their parents, who head the family.

The second distinction among persons arises from the diversity of employments required by society, and which unite them all into a body of which each is a member. For just as God has made each person depend on the help of others for various needs, He has differentiated their status and their employments for the sake of all these needs, assigning to people the place in which they should function. And it is through these interdependent employments and conditions that the ties binding human society are formed, as well as the ties among its individual members. This also makes it necessary to have a head to unite and rule the body of the society created by these various employments, and to maintain the order of the relationships that give the public the benefit of the different functions corresponding to each person's station in life.


It is a further consequence of these principles that, since all people do not do their duty and some, on the contrary, commit injustices, for the sake of keeping order in society, injustices and all enterprises against this order must be repressed: which was possible only through authority given to some over others, and which made government necessary.

This necessity of government over people equal by their nature, distinguished from each other only by the differences that God established among them according to their stations and professions, makes it clear that government arises from His will; and because only He is the natural sovereign of men, it is from Him that all those who govern derive their power and all their authority, and it is God Himself Whom they represent in their functions.

[The Duties of the Governed]

Since government is necessary for the public good, and God Himself has established it, it is consequently also necessary for those who are subject to government, to be submissive and obedient. For otherwise they would resist God Himself, and government, which should be the bond of peace and unity that brings about the public good, would become an occasion for divisions and disturbances that would cause its downfall.

The first duty of obedience to government is the duty to obey those who hold the first place in it, monarchs or others who are the heads of the body that makes up society, and to obey them as the limbs of the human body obey the head to which they are united.

This obedience to him who governs should be considered as obedience to the power of God Himself, Who has instituted [the prince] as His lieutenant ....


Obedience to government includes the duties of keeping the laws, not undertaking anything contrary to them, performing what is ordered, abstaining from what is forbidden, shouldering public burdens, whether offices or taxes; and in general everyone is obliged not only not to contravene public order in any way, but to contribute to it [positively) according to his circumstances.

Since this obedience is necessary to maintain the order and peace that should unite the head and members composing the body of the state, it constitutes a universal duty for all subjects in all cases to obey the orders of the prince, without taking the liberty of passing judgment on the orders they should obey. For otherwise, the right to inquire what is just or not would make everyone a master, and this liberty would encourage seditions. Thus each individual owes obedience to the laws themselves and [even] to unjust orders, provided he can obey and follow them without injustice on his own part. And the only exception that can qualify this obedience is limited to cases in which one could not obey without disobeying the divine law.

[The Power, Rights, and Duties of Sovereigns]

The sovereign power of government should be proportionate to its mandate, and in the station he occupies in the body of human society that makes up the state, he who is the head should hold the place of God. For since God is the only natural sovereign of men, their judge, their lawgiver, their king, no man can have lawful authority over others unless he holds it from the hand of God .... The power of sovereigns being thus derived from the authority of God, it acts as the arm and force of the justice that should be the soul of government; and that justice alone has the natural claim to rule the minds and hearts of men, for it is over these two faculties of men that justice should reign.


According to these principles, which are the natural foundations of the authority of those who govern, their power must have two essential attributes: one, to make that justice rule from which their power is entirely derived, and the other, to be as absolute as the rule of that justice itself, which is to say, the rule of God Himself Who is justice and Who wishes to reign through [princes] as He wishes them to reign through Him. For this reason Scripture gives the name of gods to those to whom God has entrusted the right of judging, which is the first and most essential of all the functions of government....

Since the power of princes thus comes to them from God, and since He gives it to them only as an instrument of His providence and His rule over the states whose government He delegates to them, it is clear that they should use this power in accordance with the aims that divine providence and rule have established for them; and that the material and visible manifestations of their authority should reflect the operation of the will of God.... [The will of GodJ Whose rule they ought to make visible through their power, should be the governing principle for the way they use that power, since their power is the instrument [of the divine will] and is entrusted to them only for that purpose.

This, without a doubt, is the foundation and first principle of all the duties of sovereigns, namely to let God Himself rule; that is, to govern according to His will which is nothing other than justice. Thus it is the rule of justice which should be the glory [of the rule] of princes.


Among the rights of the sovereign, the first is the right to administer justice, the foundation of public order, whether he exercises it himself as occasions arise or whether he lets it be exercised by others whom he delegates for the purpose ....


This same right to enforce the laws, and to maintain order in general by the administration of justice and the deployment of sovereign power, gives the prince the right to use his authority to enforce the laws of the Church, whose protector, conservator, and defender [sic] he should be; so that by the aid of his authority, religion rules all his subjects....


Among the rights that the laws give the sovereign should be included [the right] to display all the signs of grandeur and majesty necessary to make manifest the authority and dignity of such wide-ranging and lofty power, and to impress veneration for it upon the minds of all subjects. For although they should see in it the power of God Who has established it and should revere it apart from any visible signs of grandeur, nevertheless since God accompanies His own power with visible splendor on earth and in the heavens as in a throne and a palace...

He permits that the power He shares with sovereigns be proportionately enhanced by them in ways suitable for arousing respect in the people. This can only be done by the splendor that radiates from the magnificence of their palaces and the other visible signs of grandeur that surround them, and whose use He Himself has given to the princes who have ruled according to His spirit.


The first and most essential of all the duties of those whom God raises to sovereign government is to acknowledge this truth: that it is from God that they hold all their power [sic], that it is His place they take, that it is through Him they should reign, and that it is to Him they should look for the knowledge and wisdom needed to master the art of governing. And it is these truths they should make the principle of all their conduct and the foundation of all their duties.


The first result of these principles is that sovereigns should know what God requires of them in their station and how they should use the power He has given them. And it is from Him they should learn it, by reading His law, whose study He has explicitly prescribed for them, including what they should know in order to govern well.


These general obligations ... encompass all the specific duties of those who hold sovereign power. For [these obligations] cover everything that concerns the administration of justice, the general policing of the state, public order, the repose of subjects, peace of mind in families, vigilance over everything that can contribute to the common good, the choice of able ministers who love justice and truth [sic], the appointment of good men to the dignities and offices that the sovereign himself needs to fill with persons known to him, the observance of regulations for filling other offices with people not subject to his personal choice, discretion in the use of severity or mercy in those cases where the rigor of justice may be tempered, a wise distribution of benefices, rewards, exemptions, privileges, and other favors; good administration of the public finances, prudence in conducting relations with foreign states, and lastly everything that can make government pleasing to good people, terrible to the wicked, and worthy in all respects of the divine mandate to govern men, and of the use of a power which, coming only from God, shares in His own Authority.


We may add as a last duty of the sovereign, which follows from the first and includes all the others, that although his power seems to place him above the law, no one having the right to call him to account, nevertheless he should observe the laws as they may apply to him. And he is obliged to do this not only in order to set a good example to his subjects and make them love their duty, but because his sovereign power does not exempt him from his own duty, and his station requires him to prefer the general good of the state to his personal interests, and it is a glory for him to look upon the general good as his own.

The Blank Slate of the Mind: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)      John Locke

God–“A Cause Contradicted by Its Effects”: Common Sense (1770), Baron d’Holbach

Woman: “Especially Constituted to Please Man”, Jean Jacques Rousseau

Chapter 5: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”:  The French Revolution

The Grievances of Carcassonne                                                           

“What Is the Third Estate?” (January 1789), the Abbé Aieyès

Women of the Third Estate: “We Ask to Be Enlightened” (January 1789)

                         Declaration of the Rights of Woman (1791), Olympe de Gouges

“You Would Exterminate All Your Enemies by the Guillotine!” (December 20, 1793), Camille Desmoulins

The Artistic Vision: Jean-Claude Marat:  “The Martyr of the Revolution”

“Virtue and Terror”: Speech to the Convention (February 5, 1794), Maximilien  Robespierre



“The Only Salvation Lies in Hereditary Power” (December 1804), Napoleon Bonaparte

Why the French Submitted to Napoleon’s Rule (1804), Comtesse de Rémusat

Napoleon in Exile:  “We Stand as Martyrs to an Immortal Cause!”, Napoleon Bonaparte

The Role of Great Men in History, G. W. F. Hegel

Against the Grain: Beethoven’s Eroica: “To the Memory of a Great Man”

Portrait of Beethoven, Joseph Karl Stieler

Ode to Joy, Friedrich Schiller


The Romantic Movement (1780-1830)


The Erlking, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Terror and the Macabre:  Frankenstein (1818), Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley


The Artistic Vision: “The Tyrant of Europe”

Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte, Lord Byron    

The Third of May, 1808 , Francisco Goya


Chapter 7: “A World to Win!”: The Industrial Revolution


Rural and Urban Transformations


The Dependent Poor (1795), David Davies

“How Are Men to Provide for Their Families?”:  A Workers Petition (1786)


The Urban Landscape


The Factory System


Sybil (1845), Benjamin Disraeli

The Sadler Report:  “Not Many as Deformed as I Am” (1832)

Child Labor

A Defense of the Factory System (1835), Andrew Ure


Living Conditions   


The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844), Friedrich Engels  

The Impact of the Factory System on Women and the Family, Friedrich Engels

Reaction and Reform


Against the Grain: The Horrors of the Slave Trade

 “A Scene of Horror Almost Inconceivable” , Olauda Eqiano

“We Can No Longer Plead Ignorance”, William Wilberforce


Law and Liberty: The Liberal Truth


The Iron Law of Wages (1817), David Ricardo

The Chartist Demands (1838)

A Middle-Class Perspective (1859), Samuel Smiles


The Artistic Vision: The Social Perspective by Train

Over London by Rail , Gustave Doré

Third Class Carriage , Honoré Daumier


Visions of a New World: The Socialist Truth


Utopian Socialism (1816), Robert Owen

The Communist Manifesto (1848), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels


The Reflection in the Mirror: A Papal Perspective:  Rerum Novarum (1891)

“A Yoke Little Better Than That of Slavery Itself”, Pope Leo XIII



Chapter 8: Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism


Volksgeist:  The “Spirit of the People”(1815-1850)


The Conservative Confession of Faith, Prince Klemens von Metternich

Stirrings:  The People and the Fatherland, Johann Gottlieb Fichte

The Duties of Man, Giuseppi Mazzini


The Reflection in the Mirror: The Greek Revolution of 1820

“To Avenge Ourselves Against a Frightful Tyranny”

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1826), Eugène Delacroix


“A Moderate Amount of Happiness for All Men”, Alexis de Tocqueville

1848: “A Great Outburst of Elemental Forces Had Begun”, Carl Schurz

The Political Unification of Italy and Germany(1850-1890)


Proclamation for the Liberation of Sicily (1860), Giuseppe Garibaldi

Address to the Italian Parliament (1871), King Victor Emmanuel II

“We Germans Fear God, and Nothing Else in the World”:

                       Speech to the Reichstag (1888), Otto von Bismarck


Against the Grain: The Zionist Movement

The Basil Program (1897)        


Chapter 9: “Mark Them with Your Dead!”: The Scramble for Global Empire


“Send Forth the Best Ye Breed!”: The Foundations of Imperialism


Racism and the Corruption of Science


The Descent of Man (1871), Charles Darwin

The Standpoint of Science (1900),  Karl Pearson


For God and Country


The Mandate System: Britain’s Duty in Egypt (1890) , Joseph Chamberlain

“France Must Be a Great Country!”  (1883), Jules Ferry

Germany’s Place in the Sun (1900), Kaiser Wilhelm II

The White Man’s Burden (1899), Rudyard Kipling


“To Seek Another’s Profit and Work Another’s Gain”


“Your New-Caught Sullen Peoples”


Education in India: “The Intrinsic Superiority of Western Literature” (1835), Thomas Babington Macaulay

Foreign Children, Robert Louis Stevenson

“A Natural Inclination to Submit to a Higher Authority” (1893)

Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard

The Reflection in the Mirror  “The Judgment of Your Peers”

The “White Man’s Face”: Terror in the Congo, Frederick Starr

The Battle Hymn of the Republic (Brought Down to Date), Mark Twain


Chapter 10: Fin de Siècle: The Birth of the Modern Era


The Woman Question and Anti-Feminism


 Seneca Falls Declaration (1848)

“Sisters of America! Your Sisters of France Are United with You” (1851)

Pauline Roland and Jeanne Deroine

Against Woman Suffrage (1884), Francis Parkman

“The Brain Weight of Women is Five Ounces Less Than That of Men” (1887), George Romanes


Against the Grain: The Independent Woman

A Doll’s House (1879), Henrik Ibsen


“This Is the Logic of Demons!”, Josephine Butler

“I Incite This Meeting to Rebellion” (1912), Emmeline Pankhurst


The Revolt Against Reason


Faith, Love, and Hope: “Enough!  Enough!” (1887), Friedrich Nietzsche

“God Is Dead!”, Friedrich Nietzsche


The Artistic Vision: The Insular World of Edvard Munch

Scream (1893), Edvard Munch




Chapter 11: The Great War (1914-1918)


The Road to War


The Celebration of War


“Without War, No State Could Exist”, Heinrich von Treitschke

“Blind Obedience to Primitive Instincts” (1910), Norman Angell


The Lamps Go Out Over Europe


Statutes of “The Black Hand”

Assassination at Sarajevo:  The Plot and Murder (June 28, 1914)

“The Sword is Drawn!” (August 18, 1914), Kaiser Wilhelm II


“They Shall Not Pass”: The Great War (1914-1918)


The Horror of Battle


The Battle of Verdun (February—December 1916)

The Battle of the Somme (July—November 1916)

No Man’s Land,  J. Knight-Adkin

“What Are You Fighting For, Michel?”


Against the Grain: Glory in the Skies:  The Red Baron

 “An Englishman for Breakfast”              Baron Manfred von Richthofen

“On the Other Side of the Boundary”                                         Ernst Udet


It Is Sweet and Proper to Die for One’s Country


Five Souls                                                                                                     W. N. Ewer

A German War Letter: “One Blood-Soaked, Corpse-Strewn Field”      Richard Schiemder


The Artistic Vision: The Nightmare of Otto Dix

Dance of Death in the Year *17: Dead Man Hill

Aftermath:  The Light That Failed


“This Is the Way the World Ends”


A German Soldier Returns Home: “A Complete Stranger”                               Anna Eisenmenger

“If You Want to Endure Life—Prepare for Death”                                                 Sigmund Freud



Chapter 12: The Russian Revolution and the Development of the Soviet State (1917—1939)


The Provisional Government (March—November 1917)


“A New, Free Russia Is Born!”: First Declaration of the Provisional Government (March 19, 1917)

The April Theses (April 20, 1917)                           V. I. Lenin


The Bolshevik Revolution (November—December 1917)


The Overthrow of the Provisional Government: “A New Page in the History of Russia”              V. I. Lenin

“Little Good Is To Be Expected” (November 8, 1917)                     Izvestia

Censorship of the Press (November 9, 1917)                                V. I. Lenin

Establishment of the Secret Police (December 20, 1917)             V. I. Lenin


The Aftermath of Revolution (1917-1928)


State and Revolution: The Transition from Capitalism to Communism (August 1917)                            V. I. Lenin

“Days of Grueling Work”                                                                                                                                        Alexandra Kollontai

The Communist Emancipation of Women (1920)                                   V. I. Lenin

“Stalin Is Too Rude” (January 4, 1923)                                                       V. I. Lenin

Stalin’s Falsification of History (1927)                                                      Leon Trotsky


The Development of the Totalitarian State (1928-1938)


The Artistic Vision: The Soviet Creation of Belief

                                                       Industrial Worker and Collective Farm Girl (1937)              Vera Mukhina        

The Soviet Control of Society


Industrialization: “Either Perish or Overtake Capitalistic Countries” (1931)                           Joseph Stalin

Collectivization and the Liquidation of the Kulaks (1929)                                                         Joseph Stalin

“For the Fatherland!” (1936)    pravda

The Purge Trials: “Traitors Must Be Shot Like Dirty Dogs!” (1938)                                          Andrei Vyshinsky

The Gulag: “Stalin’s Sadistic Nature Thirsted for Blood!” (1938)


The Reflection in the Mirror  The Orwellian World

“Power Is in Tearing Human Minds to Pieces”   George Orwell



Chapter 13: Europe between the Wars: Fascism and the Nazi Rise to Power (1919—1939)


The Legacy of World War I


The Rise of Benito Mussolini


“The State’s Authority Was Ready for the Grave” (1922)                                 

The Fascist March on Rome (October 26, 1922)                                               

The Doctrine of Fascism: “This Will Be the Century of the State”                    


“Germany in Her Deepest Humiliation”


“I Resolved Now to Become a Politician”                    Adolf Hitler

“Stabbed in the Back” (1919)                                       Paul von Hindenburg

The Treaty of Versailles (1919)


The Weimar Republic


Germany’s Unstable Democracy: The Best and Worst of Times


The Weimar Constitution: Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Germans (1919)

Inflation: “The Boiling Kettle of a Wicked Witch”                                  Lilo Linke


Hitler’s Response to Germany’s Problems


The Nazi Program (1920)

Nazi Political Rally Announcement (February 1921)                        National Socialist German Workers’ Party


Nazi Appeal and Victory


Nazi Propaganda


Nationalists, Socialists, and Jews (1930)                                             Joseph Goebbels

Free Germany! (1932)

Nazi Victory by the Numbers:  Elections to the German Reichstag (1924—1932)


Chancellor to Dictator


Decree for the Protection of the People and State (February 28, 1933)

The Enabling Act (March 24, 1933)

Law Against the New Formation of Parties (July 14, 1933)

Law Concerning the Head of the German State (August 1, 1934)


The Role of the Family in the Nazi State


“Our Fanatical Fellow-Combatants” (September 8, 1934)                    Adolf Hitler

“The Disenfranchisement of Women”                                                      Hanna Schmitt

Hitler Youth: “Tough As Leather, Hard As Krupp Steel”                        Adolf Hitler


Conversion and Resistance


“Now I Know Which Road to Take”                                         Joseph Goebbels

“I Had Given Him My Heart”                                                   Kurt Ludecke


Against the Grain: “Guilty! Guilty!  Guilty!”

                                  Leaflets of “The White Rose” (1942)                Hans and Sophie Scholl



Chapter 14: “The Abyss Also Looks into You”: War and Holocaust (1939-1945)


 The Road to War (1938—1939)


The Czechoslovak Crisis (September 1938—March 1939)


“The Misery of the Sudeten Germans Is Indescribable” (September 12, 1938)               Adolf Hitler

“Czechoslovakia Has Ceased to Exist” (March 15, 1939)                                                    Adolf Hitler

“I Bitterly Regret What Has Now Occurred” (March 15, 1939)                                             Neville Chamberlain


The Invasion of Poland (September 1939)


“Our Enemies Are Little Worms” (August 22, 1939)                                                             Adolf Hitler

“Everything I Have Hoped for Has Crashed into Ruins” (September 3, 1939)                  Neville Chamberlain


Total War (1939-1943)


The Battlefield and the Homefront


Alone:  “Their Finest Hour” (June 18, 1940)                                                                              Winston Churchill

The Battle of Britain:  “So Much Owed by So Many to So Few” (August 20, 1940)               Winston Churchill

London Aflame!                                                                                                                             Mrs. Robert Henrey

“A Date Which Will Live in Infamy”                                                                                               President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Women in the Factories: “My Hands Are as Smooth as the Steel I Worked On”                   Elizabeth Hawes


The Jewish Holocaust (1923-1945)


“The Jews Are the Cause of Our Misfortune!”


The Jewish Peril (April 1923)                                                                                    Adolf Hitler

“Not a Single Jew” (1932)

“I Got You at Last, You Little German Girl!” (1938)                                               Ernst Hiemer


The Radicalization of Anti-Semitism (1938-1941)


“Jewish Ghettos Shall Have to Be Created” (November 12, 1938)

“The Annihilation of the Jewish Race in Europe!” (January 30, 1939)                 Adolf Hitler

“The Jews Are to Blame!” (1941)                                                                               Joseph Goebbels


The Final Solution (1942-1945)


“A Complete Solution to the Jewish Question” (July 31, 1941)                           Hermann Goering

The Wansee Conference (January 20, 1942)


The Death Camps: “Work Makes You Free”


Sites of Nazi Concentration Camps

Genocide                                                                           Rudolf Hoess                                                                        

The Pit                                                                                Hermann Gräbe

Gas                                                                                     Kurt Gerstein

Mobile Killing

Nazi Medical Experiments                                               Dr. Franz Blaha

Commandant of Auschwitz                                            Rudolf Hoess


Against the Grain: Jewish Resistance

Nazi Problems in the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1, 1943)    Joseph Goebbels

The Destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1943)     Jürgen Stroop

Manifesto of the Jewish Resistance in Vilna (September 1943)


Götterdämmerung:  The Final Destruction (1944—1945)


The D-Day Invasions (June 6, 1944)


The Paratrooper: “He Was Blown Away”                                 Ken Russell

The Assault on Omaha Beach: “I’m Hit! I’m Hit!”                  Harold Baumgarten


The Reflection in the Mirror  Fiftieth Anniversary of D-Day

 “When They Were Young, These Men Saved the World”                                     President Bill Clinton

The Vision at Sixty-Five                   President Barack Obama

The Funeral Oration of Pericles      Thucydides


The Aftermath of War


The Destruction of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)             Harry S Truman

Nuremberg:  The Crimes of the Nazi Regime                   Justice Robert H. Jackson

The Existential Perspective (1956)                                     Jean-Paul Sartre



Chapter 15: The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation (1945-1990)


 Retrenchment (1945-1960)


The Reconstruction of Europe


The Marshall Plan (June 1947)                                               George C. Marshall

Program for the Welfare State: The Beveridge Report


The Retreat from Empire


Vietnam: “Determined to Fight to the Bitter End” (1945)            Ho Chi Minh

British Rule in India (1946)       JAWAHARLAL NEHRU

The Arab Nationalist Movement and Revolution (1958)             Abdul Gamal Nasser


The Cold War (1945—1990)


The “Superpower” Rivalry


The Soviet Victory: Capitalism Versus Communism (February 1946)                 Joseph Stalin

“An Iron Curtain Has Descended Across the Continent” (March 1946)               Sir Winston Churchill

The Truman Doctrine (March 1947)                                                                          Harry S Truman

Marx Was Wrong: The Flaws of Communism (1953)                                              Theodore White

How to Spot a Communist (1955)


Currents of Dissent


The New Class (1957)                                     Milovan Djilas

“The Victory of Communism Is Inevitable!”:

 The Secret Speech (1962)                             Nikita Khrushchev

Prague Spring: The Brezhnev Doctrine (1968)


“A World Turned Upside Down!”: The Gorbachev Era


Against the Grain: Cracks in the Berlin Wall

                                    “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall!” (June 12, 1987)                           President Ronald Reagan


Perestroika and the Socialist Renewal of Society (September 11, 1989)                                   Mikhail Gorbachev

Gorbachev’s Resignation: “This Society Has Acquired Freedom” (December 25, 1991)        Mikhail Gorbachev



Chapter 16: The Dynamics of Change in the Contemporary World (1990-2010)


Political and Economic Initiatives


A United Germany in a United Europe (June 5, 1990)                                                                  Helmut Kohl

The Reconciliation of France and Germany (September 24, 1990)                                           François Mitterrand

“Czechoslovakia Is Returning to Europe”                                              (February 21, 1990)     Václav Havel

Communism: “Far Away from the Mainstream of Civilization” (December 31, 1999)           Vladimir Putin

Monetary Union: Europe’s Global Role (1998)                                                                              Lawrence H. Summers


Ethnic Strife and Terrorism


Ethnic Strife in Eastern Europe (April 15, 1994)                                            Helmut Tuerk

Crimes Against Humanity:  “Ethnic Cleansing” in Serbia (1992)


The Reflection in the Mirror: Balkan Crimes

“We Are Witnesses to a Process of Death in the Balkans” (January 12, 1994)    Pope John Paul II


“We Wage a War to Save Civilization Itself” (2001)                                     President George W. Bush


The Islamic World and the West


“Fanaticism Is Not a State of Religion, But a State of Mind” (July 11, 2005)               Prime Minister Tony Blair

“This Is Going to Be Freedom’s Century” (March 29, 2006)                                        President George W. Bush

Turkey and the European Union (2009)                                                                          President Barack Obama 


Against the Grain: The Future of the West

“A New Beginning” (June 4, 2009)                                                 President Barack Obama

 “The Burqa Is Not Welcome in France”: The Press Conference (June 6, 2009)        

President Barack Obama and President Nicholas Sarkozy


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